Lifting heavy items is one of the leading causes of injury in the workplace. In 2001, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that over 36 percent of injuries involving missed workdays were the result of shoulder and back injuries. Overexertion and cumulative trauma were the biggest factors in these injuries. Bending, followed by twisting and turning, was the more commonly cited movements that caused back injuries. Strains and sprains from lifting loads improperly or from carrying loads that are either too large or too heavy are common hazards associated with manually moving materials.
When employees use smart lifting practices, they are less likely to suffer from back sprains, muscle pulls, wrist injuries, elbow injuries, spinal injuries, and other injuries caused by lifting heavy objects. Please use this page to learn more about safe lifting and material handling.
- Setting Down
Before lifting or carrying, plan out your lift. Think about:
- How heavy/awkward is the load? Should I use mechanical means (e.g. a hand-truck) or another person to help me with this lift? Is it possible to break the load into smaller parts?
- Where am I going with the load? Is the path clear of obstructions, slippery areas, overhangs, stairs, and other uneven surfaces? Are there closed doors that need to be opened?
- Are there adequate handholds on the load? Do I need gloves or other personal protective equipment? Can I place the load in a container with better handholds? Should another person help me with the load?
Get as close to the load as possible. Try to keep your elbows and arms close to your body. Keep your back straight during the lift by tightening the stomach muscles, bending at the knees, keeping the load close and centered in front of you, and looking up and ahead. Get a good handhold and do not twist while lifting. Do not jerk; use a smooth motion while lifting. If the load is too heavy to allow this, find someone to help you with the lift.
Do not twist or turn the body; instead, move your feet to turn. Your hips, shoulders, toes, and knees should stay facing the same direction. Keep the load as close to your body as possible with your elbows close to your sides. If you feel fatigued, set the load down and rest for a few minutes. Don’t let yourself get so fatigued that you cannot perform proper setting down and lifting techniques for your rest.
4. Setting Down
Set the load down in the same way you picked it up, but in the reverse order. Bend at the knees, not the hips. Keep your head up, your stomach muscles tight, and do not twist your body. Keep the load as close to the body as possible. Wait until the load is secure to release your handhold.
Important Things To Remember
- Use mechanical means (e.g. hand trucks, pushcarts, etc.) when possible for heavier or awkward loads. Remember to obtain training and authorization before using a forklift.
- It is easier and safer to push than to pull.
- Keep loads as close to the body as possible and do not twist while lifting, carrying, or setting down a load. The nose, shoulders, hips, and toes should all be facing the same direction.
- Minimize reaching.
- As a general rule, bend at the knees, not the hips.
- Get help when needed. Do not lift or carry things you don’t feel comfortable with, no matter how light the load.
- Plan ahead for all parts of the lift: lifting, carrying and setting down.
- Try to utilize proper handholds while lifting. If an item does not have a good handhold, think of ways to remedy this, such as placing the item in a container with good handholds, creating a safe and proper handhold with an appropriate tool, etc.
- Use personal protective equipment where needed, such as gloves with good grip and steel-toed boots where appropriate.
- Implement rest breaks and job rotation for frequent and/or heavy lifting.
- Place items to be lifted within the “power zone”. The power zone is close to the body, between the mid-thigh and mid-chest of the person doing the lifting. This is the area where the arms and back can lift the most with the least amount of effort.
Weight Of Objects
Heavier loads place greater stress on muscles, discs, and vertebrae.
Where possible, use mechanical means such as forklifts or hand trucks to transport heavy items. Ramps can be helpful in moving heavy items from one level to another. Materials that must be manually lifted should be placed at “power zone” height: about mid-thigh to mid-chest of the person doing the lifting. Ensure that proper lifting principles (see above) are used. Try to order supplies in smaller quantities and/or break loads up into smaller, lighter quantities where possible. Is the container itself heavy? Perhaps a smaller or lighter container is available. Limit the weight you lift to no more than 50 pounds. When lifting loads heavier than 50 pounds, use two or more people to lift the load.
Bending while lifting causes several problems for the back. It adds the weight of the upper body to the weight of the object being lifted. Bending and/or reaching moves the load away from the body and allows leverage to significantly increase the effective load on the back, leading to stress on the lower spine and muscle fatigue. Carrying loads on one shoulder, under an arm, or in one hand creates uneven pressure on the spine.
Move items close to the body and use the legs when lifting from a low location to minimize bending and reaching. Ensure proper housekeeping is taking place so that you may get as close to your lifting load as possible. Store and place materials that need to be manually lifted at the “power zone”: mid-thigh to mid-chest height. This can be accomplished by placing objects on shelves, tables, racks, or stacked pallets; or by using ladders or aerial lifts where necessary to elevate yourself and minimize overhead reaching. Roll-out decks in truck beds can be utilized to bring materials closer to the employee and eliminate the need to crawl into the back of a truck. Ensure that proper lifting principles (see above) are used, including avoiding twisting and holding the load close to the body.
High-Frequency and Long-Duration Lifting
Holding items for long periods, even if loads are light, increases the risk of back and shoulder injury since muscles can be starved of nutrients and waste products can build up. Repeatedly exerting, such as when pulling wire, can fatigue muscles by limiting recuperation times. Inadequate rest periods do not allow the body time to recover.
Plan ahead when beginning work that will require high-frequency and long-duration lifting. This way, the work can be organized in such a way so as to minimize the time workers spend holding loads. Adequate rest breaks can be planned in, as well as job rotation between employees. This includes both rotating tasks (employees trade-off on differing tasks) and teamwork (two or more employees work together doing different parts of the same activity to reduce strain). Planning can also include the pre-assembly of work items to minimize the time spent handling them during the actual work.
Inadequate handholds, such as boxes without handles or oddly-shaped loads, make lifting more difficult, move the load away from the body, lower lift heights, and increase the risk of contact stress and of dropping the load.
Where possible, utilize handholds such as handles, slots, or holes that provide enough room for gloved hands. Try to use materials that are packaged with proper handholds (your supplier may be able to provide different containers), or move materials into containers with good handholds. Wear protective equipment to avoid finger injuries and contact stress. Ensure that gloves fit properly and provide adequate grip. Suction devices are helpful in lifting junction boxes and other materials with smooth, flat surfaces. Other tools may be available that can create temporary handles.
Be aware of extreme temperatures that can affect lifting and material handling. For example, muscle flexibility decreases in cold temperatures, and hot temperatures can lead to heat stress. Low visibility or poor lighting increases the chance of trips and falls.
Do what you can to adjust work schedules to minimize exposure to extreme temperatures or low visibility. Wear appropriate clothing for the temperature at which you will be working. Drink lots of water to avoid dehydration in excessive heat. Provide proper lighting for areas with low light and try to perform work during daylight hours when possible.
Download the Infographic
Photo of the day: Safe Lifting at work
- Photo of the day: The Importance of Stop Work Authority in Maintaining Workplace Safety
- Photo of the day: Tomorrow’s Reward for Working Safely Today: Cultivating a Culture of Safety
- Photo of the day: Preventing slips and trips at work
- Photo of the day: Learn the DRSABCD action Plan
- Working with Electricity Electrical Accidents Guide for Electrical Workers
- Photo of the day: Hearing Protection Device Selection
- Photo of the day: If An Earthquake Shakes You-Infographic free
- Fire Safety Posters Free Download
- Photo of the day: First Aid for Electrical Burns-Infographic free
- Infographic: First Aid for Cuts and Scrapes free download
- Photo of The day: Work Safe with Lasers-Laser Safety free
- Photo of the day: Working Safely with chemicals and chemical Management
- Photo of the day: Safe work practices when using MEWPs ( updated)
- Photo of the day: Preventing Common Kitchen Hazards
- Photo of the day: Safe handling of Gas Cylinders and lecture bottles
- Photo of the day: Forklift Stability Triangle
- Photo of the day: Defective Tools Safe Work Practice
- Photo of the day: Lift With Your Legs Not With Your Back
- Photo of the day: First Aid for burns
- Photo of the day: The 7 Principles of HACCP
- Photo of the day: Working Safely with Suspended Loads
- Photo of the day: Heat Stroke First Aid and safety posters
- Photo of the day: Near-Miss Reporting and Posters
- Photo of the day: Ergonomic chair and office chair safety tips
- Photo of the day: Whole Body Vibration
- Photo of the day: Substation Safety Equipment
- Photo of the day: Bypassing Safety Controls Rules
- Photo of the day: Lightning Safety Tips
- Photo of the day: Overhead Power lines Clearance
- Photo of the day: Floor Marking
- Photo of the day: Types of Foot Protection
- Photo of the day: Types of Hand Protection
- Photo of the day: Lockout and Tagout Safety
- Photo of the day: Fall Protection Plans
- Photo of the day: Flood Safety Tips
- Photo of the day: Read All Labels Work safe
- Photo of the day: Run Project safely with Crane Hand Signals
- Photo of the day: Flagman and Traffic control
- Photo of the day: Managing Risks of Exposure to Solvents in the workplace
- Photo of the day: Scissor Lift Safety
- Photo of the day: HSE Bulletin Board
- Photo of the day: Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters (AFCI)
- Photo of the day: Safe use of ladders and step ladders
- Photo of the day: Concrete Truck Driver Hand Signals
- Photo of the day: Extension Cord Safety Tips
- Photo of the day: Protect your Head
- Photo of the day: choosing the right Anchorage
- Photo of the day: Work-Related Asthma
- Photo of the day: Top FIVE Heavy Equipment Construction Site Safety Tips
- Photo of the day: sun safety in the workplace
- Photo of the day: Cannabis and Impairment in the Workplace
- Photo of the day: Position for safety and comfort-Safety Tips
- Photo of the day: Generator Safety
- Photo of the day: Controlling COVID-19 in the Workplace-Physical Barriers
- Photo of the day: Manual Material handling
- Photo of the day: Personal Protective Equipment last resort
- Photo of the day: WHMIS 2015 – Pictograms
- Photo of the day: Indoor Air Quality
- Photo of the day: Noise in the affected workplace
- Photo of the day: Fatigue at Work
- Photo of the day: Don’t be Driven to Distraction
- Photo of the day: working in heat and Humidex Rating
- How to use Plate Clamps Safely: Safety Moment#34
- Photo of the day: Sitting at work
- Photo of the day: 5 ways to reduce the risk of Slipping and Tripping
- Photo of the day: Preventing the spread of contagious illness
- Photo of the day: Incident Investigations
- Photo of the day: 10 Scaffold Safety Essentials
- Photo of the day: Effective Health and Safety Committees
- Photo of the day: New worker Orientation & Safety Orientation checklist
- Photo of the day: Workplace Inspection
- Photo of the day: musculoskeletal disorders
- Photo of the day: Emergency preparedness in the workplace
- Photo of the day: Mental health in the workplace
- Photo of the day: Trenching Safety Tips That Can Save a Life
- Photo of the day: Dangerous Goods Classes
- Photo of the day: Safety Equipment for Confined Spaces
- Photo of the day: Tips to reduce Heat stress in the workplace
- Photo of the day: hierarchy of controls
- Your steps to chemical safety
- H2S Gas and how to handle its Emergency
- Photo of the day: Importance of Mock drill and Fire Action Emergency Procedure
- Photo of the day: Choosing the Right Face Mask and the difference between a respirator and face mask
- Photo of the day: Confined space safety Precautions
- Breath Safely: The Proper Use of Respiratory Protection
- Photo of the day: Electric shock survival
- Photo of the day: Chemical Spill Emergency Response
- Photo of the day: Construction Site fire Safety
- Photo of the day: Confined Space rescue
- Photo of the day: Conveyors Safety Tips
- Photo of the day: 5 Essential outcomes of an effective leadership survey process
- Photo of the day: Safe Lifting at work
- Photo of the day: 5 Ways to Reinforce Commuting With Positive Reinforcement