Selecting an appropriate method to control a hazard in the workplace is not always easy. When it comes to the transmission of viruses such as COVID-19, workplaces should consider establishing control measures that have the greatest impact. The main ways to control a hazard, from the most to the least effective, include elimination (and substitution), engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment (PPE). In all cases, always practice physical distancing, hand hygiene, and respiratory etiquette.
The photo of today and infographic learn how the hierarchy of controls can be applied to COVID-19 in the workplace, including examples of controls for each level in addition to Physical Barriers as detailed control
Controlling COVID-19 in the Workplace
Apply the Hierarchy of Controls
Focus on the most effective methods first and then move on to the next level of control. In all cases practice physical distancing, hand hygiene, and respiratory etiquette.
Most effective -> Least effective
- Engineering Controls
- Administrative Controls
- PPE NMM
Elimination and Substitution
- Allow workers to work remotely where and if possible.
- Assess the need to report to the workplace in person on an individual or job role basis.
- People with immunocompromising health conditions (including chronic conditions such as diabetes, heart and lung issues, or cancer) or who live with immunocompromised individuals may need to continue to work remotely.
- Use technologies to facilitate working remotely, such as teleconferencing.
- Use technologies to facilitate working remotely, such as teleconferencing.
- Physical barriers
- Increased ventilation and high-efficiency filters
- Sensors or no- or low-touch controls for water taps, doors, and garbage lids
- Communicate risks and rules.
- Limit occupancy, stagger shifts/teams.
- Use electronic communications for sign-ins and administrative work.
- Screen workers and/or customers.
- Clean and sanitize frequently.
- Practice physical distancing, hand hygiene, and respiratory etiquette.
- Change work practices to encourage physical distancing.
Personal Protective Equipment
- Face shields
Non-Medical Masks (NMM)
- Non-medical masks are NOT personal protective equipment.
- Follow the advice from your public health agency about when to use a non-medical mask.
- Wearing a non-medical mask or face covering is recommended when you cannot consistently keep 2 meters away from others, especially in crowded settings.
- Wearing a mask alone will not prevent the spread of COVID-19, but it can help. Continue to practice physical distancing and good hygiene.
- If your mask becomes damaged, wet, or dirty, replace it with a fresh one.
This section provides information regarding the use of physical barriers as a hazard control in the workplace
Consider the Risks
The risk of contracting COVID-19 increases in situations where people are working in closed spaces (with poor ventilation) and crowded places when with people from outside their immediate household. Risk is higher in settings where these factors overlap and/or involve activities such as close-range conversations, singing, shouting, or heavy breathing (e.g., during exertion).
Each workplace is unique. It is important for employers to assess the risks of COVID-19 for their specific workplace and implement appropriate hazard controls using the hierarchy of controls (i.e., elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative policies, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and non-medical masks). Use multiple personal preventive practices at once (i.e., use a layered approach) to protect yourself and others from COVID-19.
- A physical barrier is an example of engineering control. It separates people and helps to prevent the spread of respiratory droplets.
- Physical barriers may be used as a hazard control when it is not possible to maintain physical distancing and there is frequent contact with others (e.g., co-workers, customers).
- Examples of when physical barriers may be used in the workplace include retail point of sale, grocery or dining checkout, ticket sales, public transit driver protection, reception desks, bank teller counters, pharmacy pick up or drop off, manufacturing production lines, and office areas to separate workstations.
- Physical barriers should always be used in conjunction with other COVID-19 control measures (e.g., reduced occupancy, adequate ventilation, use of non-medical masks, etc.).
- Physical barriers may include curtains, counter-mounted, and freestanding plexiglass barriers, or floor-mounted freestanding prefabricated dividers. Walls are also a barrier and can be added to made of wood, steel, or glass.
- Barriers can be made from a variety of different materials. Materials such as plexiglass (acrylic) or polycarbonate plastics are frequently used. They are light and flexible materials that can be easily cleaned and disinfected.
- Use material that blocks the transmission of air. Avoid materials such as plants, porous fabrics, paper, etc.
- In many cases, transparent materials are preferred because they do not obstruct the view of the user on either side of the barrier and are necessary for situations such as driving. However, an opaque barrier may be preferred in some settings (e.g., office cubicles).
- When selecting a material type for your physical barrier, consider the following properties:
- Durability and impermeability
- Scratch and impact resistance
- Ease of cleaning and disinfecting
- Local Fire Code and Building Code requirements (e.g., use of flame-retardant and non-combustible materials)
- Workplace-specific hazards (e.g., radiation) that will determine the type of material required for the physical barrier
- Determine if the barrier will be used by people who are sitting or standing.
- The height of the barrier should consider the tallest user and should cover the breathing zones of both people on either side of the barrier.
- The breathing zone can be thought of as a bubble with a radius of 30 cm (12 inches) extending out in every direction from the mouth and nose. It should be 30 cm above the tallest person’s nose and 30 cm below the shortest person’s nose.
- Pass-throughs or openings for objects (e.g., documents, money, payment machines) should be as small as possible and not located in the breathing zone of either user.
- The width of the barrier needs to be wide enough to accommodate a person’s normal movement.
- Consult your facilities manager or building owner before installing barriers. The barriers may need to comply with applicable building and fire codes.
- Ensure that physical barriers do not interfere with the ventilation or fire protection systems in the room.
- Determine if any municipal-issued construction permits are required before installation.
- Ensure that installation meets accessibility requirements.
- Verify that the barrier is securely installed and cannot tip or fall.
- Physical barriers should never prevent escape in an emergency or impede movement.
- Verify that travel distance to exits and the exit path width is not restricted by physical barriers.
- Barriers mounted in vehicles must not interfere with the driver’s ability to see or move freely. They should not hinder access to controls, or block emergency exits from the vehicle.
Cleaning and Disinfecting
- Viruses can remain on objects for a few hours to days depending on the type of surface and environmental conditions.
- Clean and disinfect both sides of the barrier frequently throughout the day.
- To promote consistent disinfecting practices, create and provide a routine cleaning and disinfecting schedule.
- The frequency of cleaning and disinfecting will depend on the amount of time the barriers are used. For example, barriers used in front of cashiers or bank tellers may become contaminated more quickly if many people use that workstation.
- Use household or commercial disinfectants to destroy or inactivate the virus. The disinfectant used should have a drug identification number (DIN), meaning that it has been approved for use in Canada.
- Employees should be trained on the safe use of cleaning and disinfecting products. Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions when using, handling, or storing the product. Review the product’s label, and (if applicable) safety data sheet to determine what precautions to follow (e.g., use of personal protective equipment).
- For additional information, refer to t “Cleaning and Disinfecting”.
- Encourage employees to report any concerns with the physical barriers to their supervisor or employer. Employees can also report concerns to their health and safety committee or representative.
- Regularly review the effectiveness of the physical barriers and make improvements as necessary.
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