E-Books:Job Hazard Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

Leadership and management skills are critical to maintaining and keeping a safety process viable in today’s business environment. With the constant theme of organizational change, you will always face an array of internal obstacles, departmental political issues, and regulatory requirements that will appear and hinder your best efforts. Add in the behavioral quirks of human nature and the plot really thickens! The need to have foundational skills that go beyond knowledge of compliance requirements is surprisingly found within the various compliance mandates. The Federal Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) Act states that “Employers must furnish a place of employment free of recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees,” “OSHA ACT OF 1970, 29 CFR 1903.1.” Further, the American
National Standards Institute’s Z10-2005, Occupational Health and Safety Management System Standard, 4.3 Objectives, states that: “The organization shall establish and implement a process to set documented objectives, quantified where practicable, based on issues that offer the greatest opportunity for Occupational Health and Safety Management System improvement and risk reduction.” Job hazard analysis (JHA) is an essential safety management tool. Used consistently and correctly, it will increase your ability to build an inventory or portfolio of hazards and risks associated with various jobs, job steps and the detailed tasks performed by your employees. Your professional “mental map” and skills will improve as you begin to use JHA to determine the interrelations between the job steps and tasks and the dynamics of the organization. As your
portfolio of JHAs increase, you will improve your safety “tool box” and the skill sets that increase your effectiveness in implementing your programs in the face of continual organizational change.

Contents

About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Foreword. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix
Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxxvii
Part 1 Developing a Toolkit for Identifying
Workplace Hazards and Associated Risk. . . . . . . . . . 1
1 Preparing for the Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment . . . . 3
1.1 THE CENTERPIECE OF A SAFETY PROCESS, 4
1.2 HAZARD RECOGNITION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS, 5
1.2.1 Conducting a Risk Assessment of the Workplace, 5
1.2.2 Prioritizing the Risk Assessment Findings, 6
1.2.3 Developing Solutions to Resolve Risk-Related Issues, 6
1.2.4 Recommending and Implementing Controls, 6
1.2.5 Monitoring the Results, 6
1.3 DEVELOPING A SYSTEM TO IDENTIFY AND REPORT
HAZARDS, 10
1.3.1 Company Safety Policy, 11
1.3.2 Involving Employees in the JHA Process, 11
1.3.3 Protecting Employees from Harassment, 12
1.3.4 Identifying Workplace Hazards, 12
1.4 MAINTENANCE WORK ORDERS, 15
1.5 FORMS USED TO REPORT HAZARDS, 16
1.6 ACTION PLANNING, 16
1.7 TRACKING HAZARDS, 17
1.7.1 Tracking by Committee, 17
1.7.2 Follow-up Reviews, 18
1.8 CODES OF SAFE WORK PRACTICES, 18
1.9 SUMMARY, 18
CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS, 19
REFERENCES, 19

Appendix A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
A.1 SAMPLE GUIDANCE IN WRITING A POLICY
STATEMENT, 21
A.2 CLOSING STATEMENT, 23
A.3 SUMMARY, 26
Appendix B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
B.1 SAMPLE FORMS FOR EMPLOYEE REPORTING OF
HAZARDS, 27
Appendix C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
C.1 ACTION PLANNING: THREE SAMPLE VERSIONS ARE
INCLUDED, 33
Appendix D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
D.1 CODES OF SAFE WORK PRACTICES, 37
2 Workplace Hazard Analysis and Review of Associated
Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
2.1 ANALYSIS OF THE WORKPLACE, 40
2.2 INSPECTIONS AND AUDITS, 42
2.3 THE CHECKLIST, 42
2.3.1 Consultants and Outside Specialists, 43
2.3.2 Employee Interviews, 44
2.4 TYPES OF INSPECTIONS, 46
2.4.1 General Walk-Around Inspections, 46
2.4.2 Verification Reviews, 47
2.4.3 Focus Reviews, 48
2.4.4 Self-Assessment, 49
2.4.5 Document Review, 49
2.4.6 Written Inspection Reports, 49
2.5 WHO SHOULD REVIEW THE WORKPLACE?, 50
2.5.1 Supervisors, 50
2.5.2 Employees, 51
2.5.3 Safety Professionals, 51
2.6 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS, 52
2.7 OTHER THINGS TO CONSIDER DURING A SITE
INSPECTION, 53
2.7.1 Incident Investigations, 53
2.7.2 Trend Analysis, 54



2.8 SUMMARY, 55
CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS, 56
REFERENCES, 56
Appendix E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
E.1 SELF-INSPECTION CHECKLIST, 57
3 Developing Systems to Manage Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.1 HIERARCHY OF CONTROLS, 109
3.2 WHY ENGINEERING CONTROLS?, 110
3.3 ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS, 112
3.4 PPE, 114
3.4.1 PPE Limitations, 114
3.4.2 PPE Hazard Assessment, 115
3.5 WORK PRACTICES AND SAFETY RULES, 116
3.5.1 General Safety Rules, 116
3.5.2 Limitations of Work Practices and Safety Rules, 117
3.6 CHANGE ANALYSIS, 117
3.6.1 A Change in the Process, 119
3.6.2 Building or Leasing a New Facility, 119
3.6.3 New Equipment Installation, 120
3.6.4 Using New Materials, 121
3.6.5 Employee Changes, 122
3.6.6 Adapting to Change, 123
3.6.7 Other Analytical Tools for Consideration, 123
3.7 SUMMARY, 123
CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS, 124
REFERENCES, 124
Appendix F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
F.1 SAMPLE SAFETY RULES, 127
Appendix G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
G.1 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)
ASSESSMENT, 129
G.2 GUIDELINES FOR COMPLYING WITH PPE
REQUIREMENTS, 129
G.3 HAZARD ASSESSMENT FOR PPE, 130
G.4 JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS ASSESSMENT FOR PPE, 137
G.5 EXAMPLE PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
TRAINING CERTIFICATION FORM, 142

G.6 EXAMPLE PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
TRAINING QUIZ, 143
G.7 SAMPLE PPE POLICIES, 144
Appendix H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
H.1 SAFETY REVIEW OF NEW/RELOCATED EQUIPMENT
MAJOR MODIFICATION SIGN-OFF FORM, 151
Appendix I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
I.1 OTHER ANALYTICAL TOOLS FOR
CONSIDERATION, 153
Part 2 Developing Systems that Support Hazard
Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
4 Understanding the Human Role in the Safety Process . . . . 161
4.1 HOW ARE AT-RISK EVENTS DEVELOPED?, 162
4.2 WHAT CONTRIBUTES TO AN AT-RISK EVENT?, 163
4.3 THE FEEDBACK LOOP, 166
4.4 BEHAVIORAL APPROACH, 168
4.5 CHANGING BEHAVIOR, 168
4.5.1 Understanding Why Employees Put Themselves at
Risk, 169
4.6 UNDERSTANDING THE OTHER SIDE OF SAFETY, 171
4.7 BENEFITS OF BEHAVIOR-BASED SAFETY, 174
4.8 BEHAVIOR-BASED SAFETY AND INTEGRATED
SAFETY MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS, 174
4.8.1 Seven Guiding Principles of Integrated Safety
Management, 175
4.9 WILL A BEHAVIORAL PROCESS WORK FOR YOU?, 176
4.10 SUMMARY, 176
CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS, 177
REFERENCES, 178
Appendix J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
J.1 SAMPLE BEHAVIOR (AT-RISK EVENTS) LIST, 179
5 Effective Use of Employee Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
5.1 WHY SHOULD EMPLOYEES BE INVOLVED?, 182
5.2 INVOLVING EMPLOYEES IN THE SAFETY
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM, 184

5.2.1 Close Contact with Hazards, 185
5.2.2 Improved Support, 185
5.2.3 More Participation, More Awareness, 186
5.3 HAWTHORNE STUDY, 186
5.4 COMMITTEE PARTICIPATION, 188
5.4.1 Getting Employee Participation Started, 188
5.4.2 Form a Committee, 188
5.4.3 How to Use Employees in the Process, 189
5.5 AREAS OF EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION, 191
5.5.1 Conducting Site Inspections, 191
5.5.2 Routine Hazard Analysis, 191
5.5.3 Developing or Revising Site-Specific Safety Rules, 193
5.5.4 Training Other Employees, 193
5.5.5 Employee Orientation, 193
5.5.6 Different Approaches: Union and Non-Union Sites, 193
5.5.7 Forms of Employee Participation, 196
5.5.8 What Can Management Do?, 196
5.6 SUMMARY, 197
CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS, 199
REFERENCES, 199
Appendix K. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
K.1 EXAMPLE OF A COMMITTEE TEAM CHARTER, 201
6 Defining Associated Risk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
6.1 RISK MANAGEMENT, 206
6.2 GENERAL RISK MANAGEMENT THEORIES AND
MODELS, 207
6.2.1 Employee Considerations, 209
6.2.2 The Environment, 210
6.2.3 Tools/Equipment/Material Considerations, 211
6.2.4 Management Support and Policies, and Procedure
Considerations, 212
6.2.5 Job Steps and Task Considerations, 212
6.3 THE SYSTEM ENGINEERING MODEL, 213
6.4 RISK VERSUS BENEFIT, 214
6.5 RISK MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATION, 215
6.5.1 Risk Management Responsibilities, 215
6.5.2 Supervision Responsibilities, 216
6.5.3 Employee Responsibilities, 216
6.6 RISK ASSESSMENT, 216

6.7 CLASSIFICATION AND RANKING HAZARDS, 220
6.7.1 Risk versus Opportunity, 221
6.8 SAFETY SIGNIFICANCE, 227
6.9 WHAT DOES SUCCESS LOOK LIKE?, 229
6.10 SUMMARY, 230
CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS, 231
REFERENCES, 231
7 Assessing Safety and Health Training Needs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
7.1 HOW IS A GOOD TRAINER DEFINED?, 235
7.1.1 Basic Training Principles, 236
7.1.2 Types of Safety Education, 239
7.1.3 Training Plan Linked to Consequences, 243
7.2 STEPS IN THE COURSE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS, 244
7.2.1 Conducting a Training Needs Assessment, 244
7.2.2 Establishing Learning Objectives, 247
7.2.3 Course Content Development, 255
7.2.4 Safety Program Evaluation, 259
7.2.5 Recordkeeping, 262
7.2.6 Develop Improvement Strategies, 262
7.3 “BLUE’S CLUES” TRAINING TECHNIQUES, 262
7.3.1 Improved Self-Esteem?, 264
7.4 SUMMARY, 264
CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS, 265
REFERENCES, 265
Appendix L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
L.1 SAMPLE SAFETY AND HEALTH TRAINING POLICY, 267
L.2 ANSI GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATING TRAINING
PROGRAMS, 274
L.3 SAMPLE SAFETY TRAINING PROGRAM AUDIT, 275
L.4 SAMPLE TRAINING CERTIFICATION, 278
Part 3 Developing an Effective Job Hazard
Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
8 Planning for the Job Hazard Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
8.1 WHERE DO I BEGIN?, 284
8.1.1 Regaining the “Feel” of the Workplace, 284
8.1.2 Conducting the JHA, 285
8.1.3 Why Is a JHA Important?, 286

8.2 WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO GET EMPLOYEES
INVOLVED IN THE PROCESS?, 291
8.3 SELECTING A TEAM, 292
8.4 HOW DO I KNOW THAT A JHA WILL WORK
FOR ME?, 294
8.5 DEFINING THE JHA, 296
8.6 SELECTING THE JOBS FOR ANALYSIS, 298
8.6.1 Nonroutine Tasks, 303
8.7 SUMMARY, 303
CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS, 304
REFERENCES, 305
Appendix M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
M.1 DESCRIPTION OF COMMON HAZARDS, 307
9 Breaking the Job Down into Individual Components . . . . 311
9.1 BASIC STEPS IN THE JHA DEVELOPMENT
PROCESS, 311
9.2 TASKS DEFINED, 317
9.3 USING A CHECKLIST, 320
9.4 METHODS FOR BREAKING DOWN THE JOB INTO
STEPS AND TASKS, 320
9.4.1 Discussion Method, 320
9.4.2 Observation Method, 321
9.5 WHAT TOOLS CAN BE USED TO ENHANCE THE
JHA PROCESS?, 323
9.5.1 Cameras and Video Equipment, 323
9.5.2 Drawings and Sketches, 323
9.6 “CAN’T SEE THE FOREST FOR THE TREES”, 324
9.7 SUMMARY, 325
CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS, 326
REFERENCES, 327
Appendix N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
SAMPLE FACILITY CHECKLIST, 329
10 Putting Together the Puzzle Pieces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
10.1 COMPLETING THE JHA FORM, 335
10.1.1 The Header, 335
10.1.2 Body of JHA, 338

10.2 BENEFIT REVIEW: GETTING THE BIGGEST BANG
FOR THE BUCK, 348
10.3 OKAY, I HAVE COMPLETED THE JHA: NOW
WHAT?, 348
10.3.1 Review JHAs until Employee Understands Hazards
of Job, 349
10.4 REVISING THE JHA, 349
10.5 SUMMARY, 352
CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS, 352
REFERENCES, 353
Appendix O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
O.1 SAMPLE INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO CHANGE A
TIRE ON A CAR, 355
O.2 SAMPLE JHA PRE-HAZARD ASSESSMENT
WORKSHEET, 357
O.3 JHA – CHANGING A TIRE, 358
O.4 ANNOTATED JHA – CHANGING A TIRE
EXAMPLE, 361
O.5 COMPARISON JHA ON CHANGING A TIRE:
TRADITIONAL vs. NEW VERSION, 362
O.6 JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS, CANADIAN
CENTRE FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH &
SAFETY (CCOHS) REPRINTED WITH
PERMISSION, 363
11 Standard or Safe Operating Procedures (SOP) . . . . . . . . . . 371
11.1 HOW FAR IS FAR ENOUGH? WHY DEVELOP AN
SOP?, 371
11.2 ELEMENTS OF AN SOP, 373
11.3 SUMMARY, 375
CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS, 375
REFERENCES, 375
Appendix P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
P.1 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR
SPLICING: {INSERT SIMPLE INSTRUCTIONS}, 377

Part 4 Additional Tools That Can Be Used
to Develop a Successful JHA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
12 Overview of a Safety Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
12.1 PROCESS ELEMENTS, 383
12.1.1 What Are the Voluntary Protection Programs?, 383
12.1.2 How Does VPP Work?, 383
12.1.3 How Does VPP Help Employers and
Employees?, 383
12.2 MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT AND
LEADERSHIP, 387
12.3 EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION, 387
12.4 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT, 388
12.5 HAZARD PREVENTION AND CONTROL, 389
12.6 EDUCATION AND TRAINING, 390
12.6.1 Employee Training, 390
12.6.2 Management Training, 391
12.7 EVALUATION OF PROCESS EFFECTIVENESS, 391
12.8 THE NATURE OF ALL SAFETY SYSTEMS, 391
12.9 INDICATORS AND MEASURES, 395
12.10 ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES, 395
12.11 MULTI-EMPLOYER WORKPLACE, 396
12.12 EMPLOYEE RIGHTS, 396
12.13 HEALING A SICK SYSTEM, 397
12.14 THE PDSA CYCLE, 399
12.15 VOLUNTARY PROTECTION PROGRAM, 400
12.16 SUMMARY, 404
CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS, 405
REFERENCES, 405
13 Six Sigma as a Management System: A Tool for
Effectively Managing a JHA Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
13.1 SIX SIGMA EXPOSED, 408
13.1.1 The Beginning, 408
13.1.2 What Does Process Improvement Mean?, 409
13.1.3 What Does Process Improvement Look Like?, 411
13.1.4 Benefits of Improving a Process, 412
13.1.5 Improving the Process Using the Six Sigma
Methodology, 412

13.2 A BASIC SIX SIGMA PROCESS IMPROVEMENT
MODEL, 413
13.2.1 DMAIC Methodology, 414
13.2.2 Define Phase, 416
13.2.3 Measure Phase, 421
13.2.4 Analyze Phase, 427
13.2.5 Improve Phase, 431
13.2.6 Control Phase, 432
13.3 KEY AREAS OF SIX SIGMA, 434
13.4 SIX SIGMA LEVELS, 435
13.5 INVESTING IN PREVENTION PAYS OFF!!, 436
13.6 POSITIVE CHANGES TO CORPORATE CULTURE, 438
13.7 SUMMARY, 439
CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS, 440
REFERENCES, 440
Appendix Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Q.1 XY MATRIX, 441
Q.2 DEVELOPING THE MATRIX, 441
Final Words: Can You Develop a Culture That Will
Sustain Itself? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
TAKING A CLOSER LOOK AT REALITY, 452
REFERENCE, 454
Appendix R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
R.1 OSHA LISTINGS, 455
Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477

Khaled Ismail Tantawy

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