tool-box-meeingEvery year approximately 100 people are killed during construction work (2 a week). The cost of accidents can be measured in both financial and human terms. The second of these may easily be the greater loss and have the longest and farthest reaching effect. A few minutes spent learning how to avoid accidents represents time well spent. These Tool Box Talks address the most basic points concerning topics, activities and locations. They are designed to be fleshed out into short talks of 10 to 15 minutes duration without requiring specialist knowledge on the part of the speaker. The talks should be concise and punchy, in order to get the message across. A pattern of weekly talks is suggested. Every employer has a legal obligation to inform, instruct and train operatives about the risks they face in their work. Safety Awareness Talks can play a part in this and will promote the discussion of safety procedures. They should be repeated at intervals. A record must be kept of who has received this training. On the back of each Talk Sheet there is an attendance form, which should be completed and returned to the person in charge of safety in your company. Proof of training may be required at a later date.

Tool Box Talk Topics


There is a difference between being aware of Safety in a vague, general way and being Safety ‘Aware’. The secondtraining implies a continuous alert attitude to the safety aspects of every job we do. In 1991 there were about 20,000 reported accident in construction. That is about 90 a day. How many went unreported no one knows.
The Health and Safety at Work Act places duties on ALL persons at work. That includes you, your boss, and your foreman, indeed everyone at work. The only way the accident figures will come down is by everyone doing their bit about safety.
Your legal responsibility is to take reasonable care of your own health and safety and to safeguard the health and safety of those you work with and members of the public. (This includes children, who must be kept off sites).
You must co-operate with your boss in anything he does in the interest of health welfare and safety, and not interfere with anything provided in the interests of health welfare and safety. Fines of up to £2,000 can be imposed.
This includes wearing any Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) provided and using any safety equipment when provided and as instructed. If unsure about its use ASK!
Every employer must have a written Safety Policy (unless he has less than 5 employees), and draw your attention to it.
Make sure you read it, and note the arrangements, which affect you.
Play your part in keeping the site TIDY AND SAFE.
1- Look out for warning notices and OBEY the instructions given by them.088fee8
2- STAY ALERT when working in the vicinity of moving plant – diggers, dumpers, cranes etc.
3- DO NOT OPERATE machines unless you have been trained and authorised to do so.
4- NEVER RIDE on machines or hoists, which are not designed for passengers. It is illegal.
5- DO NOT INTERFERE with ladders or alter scaffolding or move boards unless you are authorized to do so.
6 NEVER THROW anything from scaffolding or any height. Lower it properly.
7- DO NOT take SHORTCUTS. Use the access provided. REPORT any DEFECTS or damage to ladders, scaffolding, plant or tools – at
8- REPORT any UNSAFE situations or practices you come across.
9- REPORT all ACCIDENTS involving injury, however slight, to your Foreman. Details of an accident requiring first-aid treatment should be entered in the Accident Book.
10- ASK your Foreman. If in doubt about the safety of any work activity.

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HOUSEKEEPING is important in order to protect people and materials.housekeeping
Combustible materials left lying around are a FIRE HAZARD.
Other materials left in the way can cause people to trip over them. Round section materials are especially hazardous.
Carelessly or untidily stacked materials can topple over causing damage and injury.
A tidy site is likely to be a safe site and vice-versa. The Health and Safety at Work Act lies down that we must have a safe place of work!
1. Keeping rubbish and loose objects clear of the floor and walkway areas.
2. Disposing of all such rubbish into skips or designated areas.
3. Stacking/storing all materials safely.
4. Keeping all tools and equipment in their proper places except when actually in use.
ACCESS WAYS are escape routes. A safe place of work at all times includes a safe means of access and egress to all places where work is done. Do not leave materials/tools/benches etc in gangways/corridors where they might impede someone’s escape or cause a tripping hazard (It might be you or your best mate who needs to get out in a hurry).
Dismantled wood must always have all the nails removed or made safe by hammering them flat.
If all rubbish is regularly collected and put into the skip, in the event of the fire, the danger is confined and more easily dealt with.
Damaged tools or equipment. Take immediate steps to have them repaired and put them somewhere safe. If not repairable or returnable they are classified as rubbish and the above applies.
When work is finished, put overalls and other PPE away in lockers or other safe places. Do not leave belongings lying around.
If you see anything lying on floors, stairways, passages that could cause people to trip and fall, pick it up and put it in a safe place – DON’T WAIT FOR SOMEONE ELSE TO MOVE IT.
If you notice rubbish piling up which you cannot remove, bring this to the attention of your supervisor.
If when working at height you notice loose objects on boards or walkways, put them somewhere where they cannot be dislodged. This avoids the risk of them falling and causing injury.
Good housekeeping is everybody’s business on site, it is an ongoing activity and a once-a-week clean-up is NOT ENOUGH.


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Persons in charge of sites, plant etc frequently has a need to warn or advice others about hazards or risks. If we don’t understand the signs and notices they put up, we could be in danger.
All safety signs have to conform to the Safety Signs Regulations. If we are familiar with the principles of the regulations we will be able to spot instantly:
Prohibition Signs                Mandatory Signs                          Warning Signs
Safe Condition Signs          Fire Fighting Equipment Signs
s-l300Prohibition Signs – These have a red circle with a cross bar on white ground. Any lettering is black.
Examples: Stop, No Entry, No Smoking

imagesMandatory Signs – These have a solid blue circle with a white symbol and/or lettering.
Examples: Hard Hats must be worn, Keep locked shut

warning-signsWarning Signs – These have a solid yellow triangle (point up) with a black border. Any symbol or lettering is also black on yellow.
Examples: Danger, High Voltage, and Guard Dogs Loose.

safe-conditions-signsSafe Condition Signs – These have a solid green square with white symbols and/or lettering.
Examples: Fire Exit, First Aid

fire-equipment-signsFire Equipment Signs – These have a solid red rectangle with white symbols and/or lettering.
Examples: Fire Alarm, Hydrant, and Extinguisher.

Note: Fire Extinguishers have their own color code, which will be dealt with later

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manualhandingManual Handling Operation is any transporting or supporting of a load, including the lifting, lowering, putting down,
pushing, pulling, carrying or moving, by hand or by bodily force. Picking up and carrying a toolbox or a step ladder or even picking up a screwdriver or hammer, or a set of stocks, is manual handling, just as unloading and positioning a boiler might be. Anything from the extremely light to something requiring your maximum strength is included.
manual_handling_pic_410wManual Handling accounts for a large number of accidents each year and many millions of ‘days off’ are due to back and other injuries. Once someone’s back has been weakened by injury it is often a recurring problem for the rest of that person’s life.
a. All Manual Handling Operations are governed by the Manual Handling Operations Regulations. Employees have a duty to make full and proper use of anything provided by an employer in connection with manual handling.
This includes following any advice and training given on lifting etc.
b. An employers duties can be summarized as – Avoid the need for manual handling wherever possible. Assess the risk. Reduce the need by providing mechanical aids. Train staff in good Manual Handling techniques.
safe-liftingBasic Rules for safe Manual Handling
1. Think before lifting! Is it heavy (above 16kg) is it large or awkward?, where is the center of gravity?, can you manage it alone?
2. Use the strong muscles and bones of your legs, not the complex and vulnerable ones in your back.
3. Make sure you have a firm grip of the load and that you can sustain the grip for the duration of the lift. Wear industrial gloves to improve grip and protect hands from sharp edges.
4. Make sure you know where you are going to put the load and that the way is clear of obstacles and not slippery. The load must not impede your forward view.
5. If in doubt, get help! There’s nothing macho about a slipped disc!
Lifting Technique
1. Tuck chin in. This keeps back as straight as possible and therefore least vulnerable.
2. Feet as close to load as possible, about a hip width apart, one foot slightly in front.
3. Bend the knees and crouch down.
4. Take a full grip, suing palms, not fingertips.
5. With elbows tucked in, straighten the leg, lifting smoothly.
6. Carry the load forward at waist height.
7. Change direction by turning on you feet, not by twisting the trunk.
8. Put down in the same careful way and continue being careful as you straighten up.

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hand-toolsWe all work with hand tools practically every day. Familiarity can lead to complacency. Faulty tools or wrongly used tools can cause nasty injuries and produce poor quality work.
Taking reasonable care of your own Health and Safety, means keeping tools in good condition and using them expertly.
Sharp tools, which cut steel, can cut flesh without trouble. Hammers, which can drive nails, can squash fingers too.
Work Equipment Regulations require employers to ensure that tools are ‘suitable’ and maintained in good order. They rely on you, as skilled trade’s persons, to assist them in this by reporting immediately if something is not suitable or is broken.
The following points are areas where care is needed (and abuse common).
ptf1421. Spanners:
Must be the right size or else they are automatically not ‘suitable’. Ring spanners are better than open ended spanners. Open ended spanners are generally better than adjustable spanners.
2. Adjustable Spanners:
Although very convenient, these can very quickly become dangerous due to wear on the jaws and adjusting mechanism. If the jaws are no longer more or less parallel, or the sliding jaw is wobbly, report the tool as ‘unsuitable’.
3. Stillsons:
These also suffer in time from wear on the mechanism. The spring will take up a certain amount of wear, but if the spring is exhausted, or the gripper teeth on the jaws are worn out, report the tool as ‘unsuitable’.
NEVER attempt to gain extra leverage by using pipe over the handle. If the temptation arises obviously the tool is too small and therefore ‘unsuitable’.
4. Files:
The handle is part of the tool. Without a handle the tool is ‘unsuitable’, and the tang extremely dangerous. Files are very brittle and must not be used as levers or chisels. If a file breaks, fragments of sharp metal are likely to fly off.
5. Cold Chisels and Punches:
When the head turns over after prolonged use, forming a ‘mushroom’, grind it off to prevent flying fragments. Keeping chisels sharp reduces the tendency for ‘mushrooming’.
6. Hammers:
Use the right weight hammer for the job. (‘suitability’ again). Ensure hammer heads are secure, with proper wedges (good order). Never shorten a hammer shaft as this spoils the balance and could strain the wrist.
7. Screwdrivers:
These should fit the slot in the screw head, so use the correct size. The point should be ‘cross ground’ to minimize the risk of slipping. Do not use them as chisels. Cross Point (Phillips) screwdrivers are not generally re-sharpenable, so discard when wear makes them unsuitable.
8. Knives:
Retractable knives (Stanley) are commendable, but do not abuse them where a preferable alternative exists e.g. cable stripping.
Use a purpose made cable stripper.
9. Hacksaws
Use the correct size with the correct blade for the job. High Speed blades last longer, but are very brittle. Slow steady cutting keeps the blade cool and gives better results. Always make sure the work is properly secured before starting to cut.
10. Tool Box/Bag
All hand tools should be put away when not in use. Good Housekeeping prevents damage and loss and keeps them sharp and available when needed. Do not walk about with sharp tools in pockets. Serious injury can result in the event of a slip or fall.
Use a tool bag or box.

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ppePersonal Protective Equipment is intended to protect you from risks, which cannot be eliminated or guarded against by other more effective means.
Your employer must assess the work you do and take all reasonable steps to eliminate or reduce risks (PPE Regulations). If he decides that some risk still remains he must provide you with PPE. Some risks are deemed to be always present on building sites, hence separate Regulations require ‘hard hats’ to be worn in ‘hard hat areas’, at all times.
1. You have a duty to wear any PPE provided by your employer and he has a duty to See that you do.
2. You must wear and use the PPE in the way it was intended – therefore it must fit you. If it doesn’t –report it.
3. PPE must be suitable for the risk and the job in hand – if it’s not – report it.
4. PPE must not itself create a new risk – if it does – report it.
5. You have a duty to take care of the PPE and not to abuse it.
6. You have no right to take the PPE off site unless your employer says you can. Otherwise you must return it to the appropriate storage place after use.
7. If you are unsure about how to use PPE (e.g. breathing apparatus) ask for training first. You must be adequately trained.
8. If there is anything wrong with the PPE provided e.g. worn out, broken, missing, In need of maintenance or cleaning etc. you must report it.
9. The Health and Safety Executive provide free advice leaflets on PPE for construction workers.
10. Remember, the law does not expect your boss to be psychic, if you know of a problem Regarding PPE or a risk that need guarding against TELL HIM ABOUT IT!

Note – Underlined words and phrases indicate a specific mention in the Regulations. Offences against the Regulations are Criminal Acts.

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step-ladderMuch of our work involves equipment deliberately put out of reach. We therefore need to use access equipment (steps, ladders, towers, and scaffolding) to get at it.
More accidents occur involving ladders than any other piece of work equipment. This is because there are so many of them, not because they are particularly dangerous.
A few easily memorized rules can ensure ladder safety. The use of ladders is covered by the Construction (Working Places) Regulations (Construction Sites) and by the Work Equipment Regulations (Everywhere else).
Ladder Rules
1. Only use ladders for work of short duration and which can safely be done from a ladder e.g. work requiring only one hand and within easy reaching distance.
2. Ladders must be of sound material, strong enough for the purpose and properly maintained. (No splits, warping, decay, damage, etc.). A missing or defective rung condemns a ladder automatically (Reg. 31). Wooden ladders must not be painted. (Reg. 9).
3. Ladders must have a firm footing for each stile and if more than 3m long be secured at the upper end, i.e. be lashed. Where such lashing is carringnot possible, securing at or near the base is necessary. Where securing at neither the top nor bottom is possible, a person must ‘foot’ the ladder. (Reg. 32).
4. Maximum height to be reached by ladder is 9m unless a resting place can be provided. (Greater heights require a scaffold or tower to ensure ‘safe Place of Work’).
5. Ladders used for access to a higher level must extend at least 1.06m above the landing place unless other regulation height hand hold is 806_2_3_secureladderbprovided. (Reg. 32).
6. Ladders must be placed at a safe angle of approx. 75 degrees. This means; distance from base of ladder to the wall should be ¼ height reached by the ladder.
7. Only one person should stand on a ladder at one time, except when a second person is standing on the bottom rung to ‘foot’ the ladder.
8. When climbing or descending ladders, both hands are needed, so carry tools etc. in a shoulder bag or such like (or hoist them up afterwards).
9. Do not use metal ladders near electrical equipment.
10. Do not use a ladder in a driveway or passageway unless protected by barriers or an assistant is constantly in attendance.

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Folding step ladders are an extremely convenient way of accessing work, which is out ofImage result for step ladder safety reach, but familiarity can lead  to carelessness. Falling off a step ladder is no less serious than off an ordinary ladder so equal care is called for. (The floor is just as hard)
Step ladders are covered by the same regulations as ordinary ladders regarding construction and materials and this is even more critical because of the extra parts required to make them foldable. (Construction/Working Places) Regulations and Work Equipment Regulations).

Establishing a habit of checking off a mental list each time a pair of steps is used, will lead to safe working. Steps are probably the most ‘borrowed’ item of all site equipment and although this may be frowned upon, it is unlikely that it can be stopped. Always check ‘borrowed’ steps doubly well as it is still your responsibility to ensure your own safety.
Step Ladders Rules
1. Steps must be suitable. ‘Domestic’ weight steps are not normally up to ‘trade’ use.
2. Check anti-spread device (cords, clips brackets etc.). Remember, if it’s defective it’s illegal!
3. Check folding mechanism (hinges, pin, rivets, etc).
Remember …………
4. Always spread the ladder to its fullest extent, so that it can’t suddenly jerk while you are on it.
5. Ensure that all four stiles are on firm, level ground. This is specifically mentioned in the Regulations (Reg. 32.7) so
use of an unsteady step ladder is an offence!
6. You must always have a secure handhold not less than 1.06m above the highest level reached by your feet. Clearly this means you cannot stand on the top steps unless there is some other handhold e.g. an extension.
7. Place the ladder at right angles to the work so that twisting the body is not necessary. Try to visualise where the
centre of gravity of you, any tools or materials, and the ladder, lies so that it stays within the base area of the
8. An assistant standing on the bottom step lowers the centre of gravity very effectively, but make sure they understand and so do not step off suddenly.

Report any defective step ladder immediately and prevent its use by others.

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Trestle Scaffolds allow access to work where more than one person is needed or where access is necessary to a wider area than a ladder cotrestle-inlineuld reach.They should be regarded in the same way as ladders or steps i.e. light, temporary access only. For heavy or long term access, proper scaffolding of tubes and boards of a mobile tower must be provided.
The Regulations concerning trestles and staging are the same as for other access equipment regarding strength, condition, stability etc.
Trestle Scaffold Rules
1. A trestle scaffold is not permitted to have the deck more that 4.5m high. (Reg. 21.2.a)
2. If the trestles are erected near an edge the 4.5m is measured from the lowest level.
3. The decking should be no more than two thirds up the height of the trestles.
4. Proprietary decking will have a label attached stating maximum loading and span and possibly maximum number of men. – Heed it!
5. The platform must be at least 635 mm wide (25”). More if materials are deposited on it
6. Access to the staging should be by an adjacent step ladder. Do not climb up the trestles.
7. Trestles are not a substitute for a step ladder – the horizontal bars are too far apart – such use is not the way it was intended and is therefore abuse. Remember – suitability – (Work Equipment Regulations 1992.)
8. Where Planks make the platform the following guide as to maximum span should be followed:

  • 38mm planks (11/2 “) 1.5m
  • 50mm planks (2”) 2.5m
  • 65mm planks (21/2”) 3.0m

9.Check that there are no loose or missing screws and bolts, no splits, warping or decayed or broken parts. It could be your neck that gets broken if it collapses.

Report any defects to your supervisor and ensure no one else uses faulty equipment

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Tower scaffolds represent the safest way of getting access to equipment above ground level.tower-scaffold

 Towers built of scaffold tubes and fittings must comply with all the scaffold parts of the Construction (Work Place) Regulations and only be erected (and dismantled) by competent scaffolder’s properly supervised.
Tower Scaffold Rules
1. Towers must only be erected on a firm level base (Regulation 15)
2. The maximum height (of platform) is 3 x min base measurement if outdoors and 3.5 x if indoors. Outriggers are permitted to increase base dimension so that greater height can be achieved.
3. Minimum platform size recommended is 1.219m x 1.219m. The area must be fully boarded and have toe boards and hand rails if above 1.980m high.
4. Access must be by fixed ladder. Best is internal diagonal type. (Keeps C.G. inside base and braces tower.) An alternative may be part of end frame of tower with rungs not more than 300 mm apart. Shinning up the tower tubes is not permitted.
5. Where the tower is mobile (on wheels) each wheel must be fixed to the tower (not held in place by the weight of the tower) and be fitted with a brake. The brakes must all be ‘on’ whilst the tower is in use.
6. The above rule means that men and materials must not be on the platform whilst the tower is being moved.ladders-and-fall-protection_picture12
7. Move by pushing horizontally near the base. Make sure the route is clear, both at ground level and up to the height of the tower, before starting to push.
8. Extra care is essential if outriggers are in use. The height/side ratio may be affected if the outriggers have to be removed for moving. Only raise the outriggers by the minimum amount possible. If in doubt about stability, get helpers to steady all four corners whilst moving.
9. Ladders must not be leant against towers, or stood on the platform to gain height. The risk of overturning the power is too great!
10. When working on a tower, pushing and pulling actions need to be undertaken with due thought as to where you are, to avoid the risk of overturning.

Report any defective equipment immediately and prevent others from using it.

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The Health and Safety at Work Act requires a Safe Place at Work at all times and this includes safe access and egress to and from the place of work i.e. theimages-18 roof. The Construction Regulations are precise in that no one shall pass across, or work on, a ‘fragile’ roof.
Fragile roofs must, by law, have a warning notice conspicuous to any person likely to go on them, but do not assume
because there is no notice that it is OK It may have blown away.
 Roof work Rules
1. Always identify the type of roof construction and covering before starting work, in case it is fragile.
2. On flat roofs, always sty on the marked walk ways, if any.
3. Edge protection (guard rails and toe boards) is required if the drop is more than 1.98 metres.
4. Access must be by staircase or ‘secured’ ladders. Makeshift access, e.g. climbing out of a window, jumping over a gap, balancing on a ledge or parapet etc. is on flat roofs, always sty on the marked walk ways, if any.
5. Edge protection (guard rails and toe boards) is required if the drop is more than 1.98 meters.
6. Access must be by staircase or ‘secured’ ladders. Makeshift access, e.g. climbing out of a window, jumping over a gap, balancing on a ledge or parapet etc. isRoof work not ‘safe access’.
7. On sloping roofs (10o pitch for walkways, 30o pitch if work place) suitable roof ladders or crawling boards must be provided or other suitable hand hold and foothold.
8. On fragile roofs, suitable roof ladders or crawling boards must be provided, properly secured. Ordinary scaffold boards are not ‘suitable’.
9. Think about tools and materials needed on the roof and ensure they are secure both whilst being taken up and whilst being used.
10. Think about others under the roof or below the roof edge. Barrier the area off and put up warning signs in case anything does accidentally drop.

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images-19Building site plant and operations are often very noisy. Exposure to excessive noise can, over a period of time lead to permanent hearing loss. In addition, noise is very wearing on the nerves and can cause irritability and loss of concentration leading to mistakes and accidents.
The delicate mechanism in our ears wears out gradually as we get older. Loud noise wears it out more quickly, leading to premature deafness. There is no cure. Prevention is required by The Noise at Work Regulations.
What to do about Noise
1. Stand 2 meters away from your mate and try talking. If you cannot hear each other without shouting, action is required by the Regulations.
2. Action Level One. Noise measurements with a special instrument must be taken. This reads in decibels dB(A). 85 dB(A) is the maximum you are allowed to hear all day.
3. The owner of the noisy plant must take steps to reduce the reading to below 85 dB(A). This could be by – changing to a quieter machine, moving it further 5219away, having it properly serviced,placing it inside an acoustic enclosure. Etc.
4. If, after doing all that is reasonably practical, the noise is still above 85 dB(A) you can ask for hearing protection (earplugs, muffs etc.) so that the noise you actually hear is below 85 dB(A).
5. Action Level Two. If the noise is still above 90 dB(A) the hearing protection must be provided and you must wear it.
6. Hearing protection must be suitable and a good fit. Ear defenders to BS 6444 will usually be adequate
7. Ear Plugs (Bilsom Dams) should be used once only and then discarded. Cotton Wool is totally ineffective as a noise protector.
8. Wash hands before touching and inserting ear plugs and do not use if you have an ear infection – tell your supervisor. KEEP EAR DEFENDERS CLEAN.
9. Owners of noisy plant may declare immediate surroundings to be and EAR PROTECTION ZONE AND erect warning signs. Ear protection must be worn continually in this zone. If you need to communicate with your mate more than by hand signals, step outside the first zone.powerdrill2
10. Remember your duty to ‘comply and co-operate’ and also take care of PPE.

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You may not be aware, but the most commonly experienced workplace injury is also the most avoidable. 50% of US employees are expected to experience physical damage to their lower back at some point. Even if you believe you aren’t susceptible to back damage where you work, it’s important to re-assess. In any job that includes lifting any kind of object you might be vulnerable to back injury. Issues usually arise when an employee is uneducated on proper lifting procedures. Even in the absence of extra appliances or company programs, there are many ways to avoid this problem.

Can You Actually Lift It?own-strength

Prior to lifting an object, go through this checklist to ensure your physical capability:

  • Can I transport this without assistance?
  • How high off the ground does it have to be?
  • What is the distance that it must be carried?
  •  Is this going to be a recurring part of the job?
  • Are you concerned with lifting this object to impress or prove something?

Lift It Correctly

When there is something you must carry and it exceeds twenty-five lbs.

you should follow these directions in order to proceed:

  • Arrange your footing appropriately. One foot should be placed beside what you are hauling; the other should be placed behind it.
  • Bend down with your knees, maintaining straightened back posture and keeping your neck and head upright.
  • Grasp the object using the full palm of your hands. Your fingers alone will not be sufficient.
  • Pull the object next to your body and make sure your upper extremities are close to you.
  • Centralize your weight above your feet and pick the object up by thrusting your leg.
  • If/when it is required of you to make turns be sure to turn with your feet while keeping your body centered.

Get In Shape

A fitness program could benefit you significantly if your workplace requires lifting such objects. Some employers provide classes but you can also practice physical wellness in your own home. Flexibility practices are helpful as they help to prevent accidents caused by abrupt thrusting of muscles that are not loose enough. Aerobic activities, cycling, jogging, and weight-lifting boost your endurance and strength.

What to do When an Injury Occurs

On the occasion that you do throw out or damage your back, remember to stay calm. Most back injuries acquired at the workplace are due to a straining or twisting of the muscles and the repercussions are not permanent. Follow these instructions if you obtain a back injury:

  • Allow your back to recuperate but be sure not to relax too much or the possibility of getting out of shape arises. If the damage is still creating problems, immediately see your doctor.
  • Return to the workplace but be sure to refrain from any heavy-lifting before you are physically ready for it. Talk with your superior about creating a specific plan so your co-workers are aware that you intend to work your way up to a regular work regiment. Start with light loads and progressively carry heavier objects.
  • Sign up for a physical therapy or fitness training class to prevent any further bodily damage in future.

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